Reformation

   The Reformation was a movement of dissent from the Catholic Church that took place in the 16th century and resulted in the birth of Protestantism. It was launched in 1517 when Martin Luther, dissatisfied with the excessive sale of indulgences by the pope to finance the building of St. Peter's, Rome, and abuses from the clergy, posted his Ninety-Five Theses on the main portals of Wittenberg Cathedral in Germany. These theses attacked the pope and explained Luther's own position on contrition and penance. Composed in Latin, they were translated into German and dispersed. The movement soon caught on in the major centers of Northern Europe with Philip Melanchthon, Martin Bucer, Ulrich Zwingli, and John Calvin emerging as leading figures. Some of the Catholic tenets the Protestants questioned were the role of the Virgin Mary in the story of salvation, the validity of sainthood and martyrdom, and the doctrine of transubstantiation when the host becomes the actual body and blood of Christ. The Reformation brought major changes to art since Protestants do not decorate their churches with images or use them for private devotion. Therefore, patronage in Protestant countries centered mainly on portraiture and genre scenes. In Catholic regions, on the other hand, religious scenes that disputed Protestant views, such as the martyrdom of saints, for example, were commissioned in large quantities.

Historical dictionary of Renaissance art. . 2008.

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  • réformation — [ refɔrmasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1213; lat. reformatio ♦ Action de réformer; son résultat. 1 ♦ Vx Réforme (I, 1o). Réformation du calendrier. Réformation d un ordre religieux. ♢ Hist. relig. Réforme (I, 2o). Le monument de la Réformation, à Genève. 2 ♦… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • reformation — ref·or·ma·tion /ˌre fər mā shən/ n: the act or an instance of reforming; specif: the equitable remedy of reforming a writing (as a deed or contract) and enforcing it as reformed ◇ Reformation is allowed primarily to correct mistakes such as… …   Law dictionary

  • Reformation — may refer to:Movements: * Protestant Reformation, an attempt by Martin Luther to reform the Roman Catholic Church that resulted in a schism, and grew into a wider movement. * Counter Reformation, the Catholic Church s response to the Protestants… …   Wikipedia

  • reformation — Reformation. s. f. v. Restablissement dans l ancienne forme, ou dans une meilleure forme. La reformation des moeurs. la reformation de la justice. la reformation des finances. la reformation de la coustume. la reformation du Calendrier.… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Reformation — Ref or*ma tion (r?f ?r*m? sh?n), n. [F. r[ e]formation, L. reformatio.] 1. The act of reforming, or the state of being reformed; change from worse to better; correction or amendment of life, manners, or of anything vicious or corrupt; as, the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • reformation — reformation, reform can both denote a making better or a giving of a new and improved form or character and are sometimes interchangeable without loss {the reformation of a criminal} {the reform of society} Reformation is the more usual term as a …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Reformation — Réformation Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Réformation est un nom donné à la Réforme protestante. La réformation est une monnaie de l ancien régime apparue en 1690. Ce document provient …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Reformation — (v. lat.), 1) Umänderung, Verbesserung; 2) die auf Grund der Heiligen Schrift 1517 im Abendlande durch Luther begonnene Reinigung der Kirche von eingeschlichenen Irrthümern u. Mißbräuchen in Lehre, Cultus, Verfassung u. ehlichem Leben. Die durch… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Reformation — Reformation. Gleich einem schnellen Tagesanbruch erscheint die große kirchliche Umgestaltung im 16. Jahrhundert. Einzelne Lichtstrahlen, die bald wieder auslöschten, gingen ihr voran. Ihren vollen Sonnenschein sahen zunächst die Alpen der Schweiz …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Reformation — (lat., »Umgestaltung, Verbesserung«; hierzu die Porträttafel »Reformatoren«), die Bewegung des 16. Jahrh., welche die Entstehung des Protestantismus (s. d.) und damit der lutherischen und reformierten Kirchen zur Folge hatte. Die R. hat in alle… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • reformation — ► NOUN 1) the action or process of reforming. 2) (the Reformation) a 16th century movement for the reform of abuses in the Roman Church, ending in the establishment of the Reformed and Protestant Churches …   English terms dictionary

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